- General Orientation
- Types of Titles
- Browse or Search?
- What Type of Search?
- Search Results
- Search History
- Saving and Viewing Citations
- Viewing an E-Book
- Viewing Options
- Navigating an E-Book
- Referencing Humanities E-Book Titles
- Linking to Text Sections
- ADA Compliance
- Printing and Downloading?
- Contact Information
The page design of Humanities E-Book (HEB) titles provides two general navigation toolbars.
- At the top of each page, in red, is the collection toolbar. This contains the navigation buttons providing access to the collection as a whole, including all functions under “Search” and “Browse,” plus links to “Help,” “Home,” and Terms” for the entire collection. “Home” can also be accessed by clicking on the HEBook icon in the upper left.
- The title toolbar appears below the collection toolbar within individual titles and contains navigation and function buttons. The first three buttons—“title record,” “contents,” and “reviews”—are linked to anchors on the title-record page itself, while the fourth, “search this book,” will bring up a search form allowing users to conduct searches restricted to the current title. Encoded-text (XML) books also include a fifth button, “related titles,” which opens a pop-up window listing related historiography.
Note: ACLS Humanities E-Book (HEB) is one of several mounted on the Web by the Scholarly Publishing Office of the University of Michigan. For both efficiency and cost-effectiveness, HEB incorporates most of SPO’s already-developed functions and presents them to the reader through HEB’s custom-designed interface.
The collection contains two types of electronic books: Page image (marked with the symbol ), which contain exact page images of the print book and multiple OCR-scanned text, and encoded text titles (marked with the symbol ), which use XML-coded text and structures.
In addition, HEB distributes several other collections, which are listed on the Title List page under Special HEB Series. These collections are fully integrated into the Browse and Search functions of the HEB collection, but can also be browsed and searched as distinct collections.
Browsing presents a list of all books available that can be accessed alphabetically by author, title, or subject. Browse lists now also present a series logo where appropriate.
- Browse by author and browse by title lists contain author, title, year of publication, and either a page-image icon, indicating that the title’s pages have been scanned for online viewing, or a computer icon for XML encoded books that were created specifically for online publication. Clicking on a title in the browse lists will bring users to that book’s title-record page.
- Browse by subject provides a full listing of Library of Congress subjects drawn dynamically from the MARC records of the collection. Click on one to find all the books in the collection that specifically match that subject (according to LC subject classifications).
Note: Since subject headings are drawn dynamically from the titles currently available in Humanities E-Book, readers will not find every LC subject heading in the list provided here. As titles are added to the collection, the subject list will expand accordingly.
Searching locates books that contain information users have specified, such as certain words in the text or title, or an author’s name. Many of the search forms have options that are available from pull-down menus. Place the mouse on the box, hold down the mouse button, and select a choice.
Use Basic Search to search for a single word or phrase within the categories “full text,” “author,” “title,” or “subject” (as listed in the pull-down menu in the first search field).
To search for more than one word or phrase, use a Boolean or proximity search. Advanced searches (including Boolean, proximity, and bibliographic) allow users to narrow down their search results by locating multiple search terms at once.
Boolean Search locates multiple terms according to Boolean operators (“and”, “or”, “not”). Use this search to find books, book titles, sections or chapters, or paragraphs/pages (depending on whether the book contains encoded text or scanned page images) that:
- include all search terms entered (“and”)
- include any of the search terms entered (“or”)
- include one (or two) of the search terms entered, but exclude the other(s) (“not”).
Proximity Search restricts the search to sections of text, author names, titles, or subjects containing certain words or phrases appearing near/next to one another within a specified number (40, 80, or 120) of characters—or, conversely, not appearing near/next to one another within that range.
Bibliographic Search restricts the search to a specific word or phrase contained in titles, authors’ names, or subject headings.
Search by Series allows users to choose one of the distinct series currently available within HEB from a pull-down menu, located on the upper right of the search dialogue box and below the red tabs. Clicking the “Search” button will produce a listing on the search-results page of currently available titles within that series.
In all of the search forms, users must hit the “search” button at the bottom to enter that search. In a search form with more than one field to be filled out, please be sure to fill out the first—a search will not return any results otherwise.
Note: Truncation is not automatic. To search for variations and plurals of words, use a “wild card,” that is, add an asterisk (*) at the end of the word. For example, “book*” will look for “books,” “bookcase,” “bookworm,” etc.
Search results are shown in a list that may be sorted (using the pull-down menu at the top of the page) by frequency (where applicable), title, author, date ascending, and date descending. Frequency is the default sort. Items in the results list contain the following elements:
- page-image/encoded-text icon
- publication info (publisher, pub date)
- number and type of matches for current item, where applicable
- a hyperlink to a list of results details, where applicable
- a hyperlink to the table of contents on the title-record page of the book itself
- a hyperlink that allows users to view the first page of the title (page-image books only)
- a hyperlink that allows users to save the title as a citation (see Saving and Viewing Citations for more information)
Clicking on results details brings the user to a list of hits within the current item. From here, either individual pages and the chapters containing these pages (for scanned books) or text sections (for encoded titles) with matches may be accessed directly, by clicking on the hyperlinked page numbers, chapter heads, or section titles.
Clicking “Refine this search” at the top of the page allows users to go back and adjust their search terms, while retaining any previously entered criteria.
On the top right-hand side of each page, as well as on the search menu located in the search pages, there is a “Search history” hyperlink that will allow users to view their past searches and corresponding number of results. The resulting list also allows readers to resubmit any previous search by clicking on a hyperlinked search query.
“Save citation”: Users have the option of saving information on individual titles in their citation list for reference purposes, creating a list of books that may be accessed/searched independently of the rest of the collection. To mark a title in this fashion, use the red “save citation” button appearing at the top right-hand side of the title-record page of a book, as well as any given page within that book. Citations may also be saved from search results lists (see Search Results).
“View my citations”: Clicking this button, which appears at the top right-hand side of each page, brings up a page displaying the list of citations. In addition to titles and authors, the list includes links to the title page of each saved item. Users may e-mail the contents of the list to themselves or download the list in a simple-text format. It is also possible to search the citation list (using basic, Boolean, or proximity searches) by linking to the respective search pages directly from the citations-page. These searches may be conducted in the same manner as described above in What Type of Search?, but are automatically restricted to books appearing on the citation list only.
Note: The citation list is only a temporary repository for records; it is cleared each time the user logs off the site.
To view the text of a specific book a reader must first locate the work through a library’s online catalog (via MARC records) or through the search or browse pages. (For information on adding a title to the citation list for reference purposes, see Saving and Viewing Citations.)
The title-record page of a book contains the following elements:
- cover image (enlargeable by clicking)
- complete title information, including author name, publication date, publisher name, copyright holder, and, where applicable, a hyperlink to the catalog page on the publisher’s website or the website itself (if the publisher is the current copyright holder)
- interactive table of contents, allowing users to access individual sections of the book directly
- links to online reviews of the title, if available
- full catalog record, based on the MARC record (MARC records are also available via FTP to HEB-subscribing libraries)
HEB now provides the reader with several viewing options enabled through the University of Michigan Library’s back-end technology. These allow more robust viewing of text, highlighted search results, and printing. At the top of each text page (not available on the title record page), to the right of the lower navigation bar, we have now provided a pull-down menu with the following options: page view, page text, and page pdf.
If you are experiencing difficulty with how a page is displaying, try selecting one of the other viewing options; different kinds of images and text display best in different formats.
Page image is the default option: the current page-image of the scanned page. In this setting, pages can be viewed in three sizes. The default view is the medium size, so a reader has the option of a larger or smaller view.
Page text offers up the complete OCR scanned text. While this lacks the formatting of the original published book (page-image) and may contain OCR-produced text errors (fewer than .01 percent), this option is especially helpful for searches, since here all search terms are highlighted in yellow.
Page pdf, the third choice, provides a non-searchable pdf file for either page browsing or printing. The maximum allowed view and printout is set at three pages, and this is usually sufficient for students and scholars following a citation or extracting a quotation and follows HEB’s policy for fair-use rights and limitations. Pages in PDF view can be magnified to a specific size using the toolbar at the top of the page. This view also allows a reader to copy and paste text.
Use the same pull-down menu to return to your original or previous viewing option.
Clicking “contents” on the title-record bar brings up the hyperlinked table of contents. “Reviews” is linked to a pull-down list of reviews available through several online resources, including JSTOR and Project MUSE, which may be accessed directly from the title-record page (provided the user has access to these collections). The “search this book” button allows the user to search within the confines of the specific book accessed. (Also see Navigating an E-Book for information on searching text-encoded titles using the interactive index feature.) For text-encoded titles, the title-record bar also features a link to a list of related titles (based on author recommendations).
“View full catalog record” links to the full MARC record information located at the bottom of the page. The “enter book” button takes users to the title page in scanned books and to the first section of encoded titles.
Access individual sections of a book through the interactive table of contents on the title-record page. Page-image books are subdivided according to the structure of the print version, e.g., by chapters. The TOC for encoded-text titles may be further subdivided to provide access to subsections of individual chapters. For these books, the TOC features paragraph ranges rather than page numbers to indicate the location of a particular section within a book.
Navigating Page-Image Books
After entering a book, a pull-down menu in the title-record toolbar provides access to any individual page. Successive pages may also be “turned” by clicking on the “prev” and “next” buttons located above and below the scanned page. The “view” - and + symbols will adjust the text size of the scanned page being viewed.
Navigating Encoded-Text Books
In encoded-text titles, text is chunked and delivered by sections rather than pages. These may be accessed successively using the “prev” and “next” links at the top and bottom of the page. Gray paragraph numbers appear in the left margin; page numbers from the print version (if any) appear in brackets throughout the text for reference purposes. Clicking on a blue note-reference number opens an individual pop-up note; this window also links directly to the full notes section. Images embedded in the text may be clicked on to open a pop-up window containing an enlarged image. (Some books with high-resolution images feature an image viewer in the pop-up window, allowing users to zoom in and pan on images.) Encoded-text books may also contain interactive links to other text sections within the same book or to information resources on the Web.
Encoded-text titles with indices offer an interactive index search feature: clicking on page (or note) numbers next to index entries will take users directly to the page (or note) in question, thus providing an alternate way of searching individual books. (Page numbers in the index refer to page breaks from the print version, as inserted throughout the text—see above.)
Note: “Born-digital” titles, i.e., those books created especially for HEB without a print-first counterpart, do not include traditional page numeration. Index references—if the author chooses to use an index— refer to paragraph numbers in the encoded-text book.
The following are examples of how to reference and cite material from ACLS Humanities E-Book. It is important to be consistent, provide the standard bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, publication date, etc.) plus the URL found in the cataloging record on the title-record page of each book.
For page-image books, with this red logo, which contain exact page images of the print book:
Note: Walter L. Adamson, Avant-Garde Florence: From Modernism to Fascism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), 204–205, http://hdl.handle.net/2027/HEB00462 (accessed February 14, 2006).
Bibliography: Adamson, Walter L. Avant-Garde Florence: From Modernism to Fascism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/HEB00462 (accessed February 14, 2006).
For books with encoded text, with this blue logo, which use XML-coded text and structures:
Note: Joshua Brown, Beyond the Lines: Pictorial Reporting, Everyday Life, and the Crisis of Gilded-Age America(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002–2003), para 155–58, pp. 87–89, http://hdl.handle.net/2027/HEB90001 (accessed February 14, 2006).
Bibliography: Brown, Joshua. Beyond the Lines: Pictorial Reporting, Everyday Life, and the Crisis of Gilded-Age America.Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002–2003. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/HEB90001 (accessed February 14, 2006).
HEB currently does not support permanent URLs to the chapter/section level. However, if users wish to create links for individual text sections within a title (e.g., for course-reserve reading), if properly formed, URLs should remain relatively stable. HEB will alert subscribers to any changes in URL configurations, which will be timed to have minimal impact.
When linking to text sections in individual titles, the following protocol applies:
For page-image books, include URL elements c, idno, view=image, and seq
Link example: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=acls;idno=heb02308.0001.001;view=image;seq=00000027
For books with encoded text, include URL elements c, idno, rgn, view=text, and node parameter
Link example: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=acls;idno=heb90009.0001.001;view=text;rgn=div1;node=heb90009.0001.001:6
ACLS Humanities E-Book (HEB), along with its technical partner, the University of Michigan Libraries, is currently reviewing HEB for ADA compliance and making improvements to the site based on this review. Completion of the initial improvements will take place during Summer 2008 and a statement on ADA compliance will be posted to the HEB site once the work is complete.
ACLS Humanities E-Book follows fair-use rights and restrictions for all books on the site. Since most material on this site is licensed for electronic distribution only, fair-use restrictions should be carefully followed by users for any printing. This means that you may print pages for your personal research use only. If, as an instructor, you want to use material in a course, you can provide the permanent URL on the title record page and the appropriate page numbers to students. If you want to photocopy pages for your course, you must apply directly to the original publisher for permission.
For best printing results see Viewing Options above and choose “Page pdf.” The default setting is set to both view and print three pages at a time. This is generally sufficient for following a citation or extracting a quotation and follows HEB’s policy for fair-use rights and limitations. If in doubt, or for further information, see our section on fair use.